For a look at the current progress and controversy surrounding the updating of the PTSD definition for DSM-V, see "Defining PTSD: Update on Our Way to DSM-V." -- Ilona Meagher, 12/07/08
To celebrate the Institute of Medicine's report for the VA in support of the American Psychiatric Association's definition for PTSD in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM), a look at the current DSM-IV's definition.
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The current definition for PTSD in DSM-IV:
309.81 DSM-IV Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
A. The person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which both of the following have been present:
(1) the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others (2) the person's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
B. The traumatic event is persistently reexperienced in one (or more) of the following ways:
(1) recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, including images, thoughts, or perceptions.
(2) recurrent distressing dreams of the event.
(3) acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations, and dissociative flashback episodes, including those that occur upon awakening or when intoxicated).
(4) intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
(5) physiological reactivity on exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness (not present before the trauma), as indicated by three (or more) of the following:
(1) efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the trauma
(2) efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma
(3) inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma
(4) markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities
(5) feeling of detachment or estrangement from others
(6) restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)
(7) sense of a foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a career, marriage, children, or a normal life span)
D. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal (not present before the trauma), as indicated by two (or more) of the following:
(1) difficulty falling or staying asleep
(2) irritability or outbursts of anger
(3) difficulty concentrating
(5) exaggerated startle response
E. Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in Criteria B, C, and D) is more than one month.
F. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
- Defining PTSD: Update on Our Way to DSM-V
- Is PTSD Over-diagnosed?
- PTSD Criteria Review Complete for VA, DSM Stands
- Update: VA-Mandated Institute of Medicine PTSD Review
- PTSD Defined: Dept. of Veterans Affairs Center for PTSD
- Army Field Manual: Combat Stress Control Scope & Definitions
- PTSD: Columbia University Encyclopedia Definition
- PTSD: Veterans Administration Definition